Petroleum County is a rural sparsely populated county located in the central part of the state.  Over 55% of land in Petroleum County is classified as farm land. 

Overview

Population
513
County Size (acres)
1,059,600
Land in Farms (%)
55.9
Number of Farms
104
Median Farm Size (acres) 2,500
Average Farm Size (acres) 5,698

 

 

 

 

 

 
Source: Census of Agriculture: Table 1: County Summary Highlights: 2017

Farm Revenue

Farm revenue (which includes the market value of products sold, government payments, and farm-related income) were over $19 million while production expenses were over $14 million. Government payments were 4.4% of farm revenues.

Market Value of Products Sold
$17,761,000
Government Payments
$861,000
Farm-Related Income
$1,066,000
Total Farm Production Expenses
$14,605,000
Net Farm Cash Income $5,082,000



 

 

 

Source: Census of Agriculture: Tables 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6:  2017  

Taxation

The market value of all property in Petroleum County was approximately $92 million in 2019.  The taxable value assigned by the Montana Department of Revenue was $1.7 million.  Agricultural Property (as defined by Montana Department of Revenue as Class 3 property) comprised 55% of the county's taxable value.

 

Property Tax Summary
2019
2014
Market Value of Property $92,706,249 $65,793,935
Taxable Value of All Property $1,750,155 $1,525,706
Taxable Value ofAgricultural Property $967,200 $967,825
Ag Taxable Value as % of All Property 55.26% 63.43%



 

 

 

Source: Montana Dept. of Rev. Montana Taxes by County in2018and Montana Taxes by County in2014  

Market Value of Crops and Livestock 

After adjusting for inflation, the market value of crops decreased by 4%, while the market value of livestock increased by 33%, from 1997 to 2017.

 

Market Value of Crops and Livestock-Petroleum County

Sources: Census of Agriculture: Table 1: County Summary Highlights: 2017 and St. Louis Fed Producer Price Index

Crops and Livestock

Cattle (81%) and grain (7%) comprised 88% of total crop and livestock sales in 2017.


Crops and Livestock-Petroleum County

Source: Census of Agriculture:  Table 2: County Summary Highlights: 2017

Farm Size by Acres 

The percentage of smaller farms, less than 500 acres, increased from 22% to 28%, while the percentage of larger farms, 500 acres or more, decreased from 78% to 72% from 2012 to 2017.

Farm Size
by Acres
2017 2012
Number of
Farms

%
Number of
Farms

%
1 to 9 5 5 2 2
10 to 49 8 8 4 4
50 to 179 5 5 7 7
180 to 499     11 11 9 9
500 to 999 8 8 6 6
1,000 or more 67 64 72 72
TOTAL 104 100 100 100
Source: Census of Agriculture:  Table 2: County Summary Highlights: 2017
 

Farm Size by Sales

The proportion of total sales from the smallest farms with less than $100,000 in sales increased from 48% to 55%, while the proportion of total sales from the largest farms with sales of $100,000 or more decreased from 52% to 45% from 2012 to 2017.

 
Farm Size 
by Sales
2017 2012
Number of 
Farms

%
Number of 
Farms

%
Less than 2,500 29 28 17 17
2,500 to 4,999 1 1 0 0
5,000 to 9,999 5 5 6 6
10,000 to 24,999 5 5 3 3
25,000 to 49,999 4 4 9 9
50,000 to 99,999 13 13 13 13
100,000 or more 47 45 52 52
TOTAL 104 100 100 100

Source: Census of Agriculture: Table 1: County Summary Highlights: 2017  

Tillage and Land Use

The percentage of farms using no till, reduced tillage, intensive tillage or cover crops decreased from 2012 to 2017.

Tillage
2017 2012
Number of 
Farms

%
Number of 
Farms

%
No tillage 23 22 23 23
Reduced tillage 10 10 13 13
Intensive tillage 13 13 44 44
Cover crops 5 5 6 6
TOTAL 104   100  
Source: Census of Agriculture: Table 41 Land Use Practices
 

Producer Profile

The county producer population was about the same age as the Montana producer population. Thirty-three percent of county producers were under 55 years of age, while 29% were over 65 years of age. Thirty-four percent of the Montana producer population were under 55, while 36% were over 65 years of age. Sixty-two percent of producers in the county were males, while 60% of Montana producers were males. Farming was the primary occupation for 68% of county producers, while farming was the primary occupation for 50% of Montana producers.

 

Characteristics
County State
Number of 
Producers

%
Number of 
Producers

%
Age
18 -25 3 2 570 1
25 to 34 12 7 3,285 7
35 to 44 17 10 5,179 11
45 to 54 25 14 7,309 15
55 to 64 69 39 13,838 29
65 to 74 27 15 11,469 24
75 and older 24 14 5,587 12
Gender
Male 110 62 28,563 60
Female 67 38 18,673 40
Primary Occupation
Yes 121 68 23,847 50
No 56 32 24,314 50
TOTAL PRODUCERS 177 100 48,161 100

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source: Census of Agriculture: Table 45 Selected Operation and Producer Characteristics

Top Crops by Acre

The top crops were hay and haylage, winter and spring wheat, and barley.

Tops Crops by Acre-Petroleum County

 Source: Census of Agriculture: Table 1: County Summary Highlights: 2017

Top Livestock

The top livestock was cattle.

Livestock
Number of Head
Cattle 22,138

 

 

Source: Census of Agriculture: Tables 11 (Cattle) 

Employment Impact

Agricultural production employed 159 workers, or 54% of the county’s labor force.  According to IMPLAN, economic impact model, 103 of the workers were directly employed in production agriculture.  An additional 49 workers were employed in businesses supporting agricultural production, such as feed and fertilizer dealers, and another 7 workers were employed in other related businesses, such as grocery and drugs stores. For every 10 jobs on farms and ranches, 5 additional jobs are generated in the county.

 

Impact Type
Labor Force
Impact Multipliers
County Labor Force 292  
Direct Impact 103
Indirect Impact 49 0.48
Induced Impact 7 0.07
Total Impact 159 0.54
Agriculture Share (%) 54  

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, www.bls.gov/#cntyaa and IMPLAN Estimates

Value Added Impacts

Farms and ranches generated $10.5 million of value-added, or 56% of the county’s total gross domestic product of $19 million in 2017.  According to IMPLAN, $6.6 million was directly contributed by farmers and ranchers.  An additional $3.3 million was generated by businesses supporting agricultural production and $0.7 million was generated by other related businesses.  Each dollar of value-added in agriculture by a farmer or rancher contributes an additional $0.61 of value-added in other sectors of the county’s economy.


Impact Type
Value-Added
($1 million)

Impact Multipliers
County GDP* 19.0  
Direct Impact** 6.6
Indirect Impact** 3.3 0.51
Induced Impact** 0.7 0.10
Total Impact** 10.5 0.61
Agriculture Share (%) 56  











Sources:  * St. Louis Federal Reserve Bank, ** IMPLAN Estimates  

References


Montana State University Extension is an ADA/EO/AA/Veteran’s Preference
Employer and Provider of Educational Outreach.