Big Horn County is located in southern Montana, and contains a significant portion of the Crow Reservation. Over 99% of land in Big Horn County is classified as farm land.

Overview

Population
13,338
County Size (acres)
3,198,158
Land in Farms (%)
99.7
Number of Farms
353 
Median Farm Size (acres) 721
Average Farm Size (acres) 9,032

 

 

 

 

 

 
Source: Census of Agriculture: Table 1: County Summary Highlights: 2017

Farm Revenue

Farm revenues (which includes the market value of products sold, government payments, and farm-related income) were just under $90 million while production expenses were $73 million.  Government payments comprised 2.7% of revenues.

Market Value of Products Sold
$83,602,000
Government Payments
$2,444,000
Farm-Related Income
$3,769,000
Total Farm Production Expenses
$73,187,000
Net Farm Cash Income $16,628,000



 

 

 

Source: Census of Agriculture: Tables 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6:  2017

Taxation


The market value of all property in Big Horn County was approximately $954 million in 2019.  The taxable value assigned by the Montana Department of Revenue was $24 million.  Agricultural Property (as defined by Montana Department of Revenue as Class 3 Property) comprised 13% of the county's taxable value.

Property Tax Summary
2019
2014
Market Value of Property $954,669,577 $890,527,934
Taxable Value of All Property $24,240,695 $25,113,302
Taxable Value ofAgricultural Property $3,218,550 $3,285,009
Ag Taxable Value as % of All Property 13% 13%



 

 

 

Source: Montana Dept. of Rev. Montana Taxes by County in2018and Montana Taxes by County in2014

Market Value of Crops and Livestock

After adjusting for inflation, the market value of crops decreased by 21%, while the market value of livestock decreased by 1% from 1997 to 2017.

Market Value of Crops and Livestock-Big Horn County

Sources: Census of Agriculture: Table 1: County Summary Highlights: 2017 and St. Louis Fed Producer Price Index

Crops and Livestock

Cattle (60%) and grain (14%) comprised over 74% of total sales.

Share of Market Value in 2017 for Big Horn County

Source: Census of Agriculture:  Table 2: County Summary Highlights: 2017

Farm Size by Acres 

 

The percentage of smaller farms, less than 500 acres, decreased from 55% to 46%, while the percentage of larger farms, 500 acres or more, increased from 45% to 54% from 2012 to 2017.

Farm Size
by Acres
2017 2012
Number of
Farms

%
Number of
Farms

%
1 to 9 14 4 36 7
10 to 49 53 15 87 17
50 to 179 47 13 79 15
180 to 499     48 14 87 17
500 to 999 28 8 39 7
1,000 or more 163 46 199 38
TOTAL 353 100 527 100
Source: Census of Agriculture:  Table 2: County Summary Highlights: 2017
 

Farm Size by Sales

The proportion of total sales from the smallest farms with less than $100,000 in sales decreased from 71% to 64%, while the proportion of total sales from the largest farms with sales of $100,000 or more increased from 29% to 36% from 2012 to 2017.
 
Farm Size 
by Sales
2017 2012
Number of 
Farms

%
Number of 
Farms

%
Less than 2,500 78 22 173 33
2,500 to 4,999 20 6 22 4
5,000 to 9,999 15 4 49 9
10,000 to 24,999 46 13 48 9
25,000 to 49,999 35 10 41 8
50,000 to 99,999 32 9 42 8
100,000 or more 127 36 152 29
TOTAL 353 100 527 100

Source: Census of Agriculture: Table 1: County Summary Highlights: 2017  

Tillage and Land Use

The percentage of farms using no till or reduced tillage increased, while the percentage of farms using intensive tillage decreased from 2012 to 2017.
 
Tillage
2017 2012
Number of 
Farms

%
Number of 
Farms

%
No tillage 51 14 38 7
Reduced tillage 24 7 23 4
Intensive tillage 60 17 102 19
Cover crops 8 2 11 1
TOTAL 353   527  
Source: Census of Agriculture: Table 41 Land Use Practices
 

Producer Profile

The county producer population was younger than the Montana producer population. Forty percent of county producers were under 55 years of age, while 35% were over 65 years of age. Thirty-four percent of the Montana producer population were under 55, while 36% were over 65 years of age.  Sixty-six percent of producers in the county were males, while 60% of Montana producers were males. Farming was the primary occupation for 56% of county producers, while farming was the primary occupation for 50% of Montana producers.

Characteristics
County State
Number of 
Producers
% Number of 
Producers
%
Age
18 -25 15 3 570 1
25 to 34 35 6 3,285 7
35 to 44 71 12 5,179 11
45 to 54 110 19 7,309 15
55 to 64 144 25 13,838 29
65 to 74 132 23 11,469 24
75 and older 69 12 5,587 12
Gender
Male 381 66 28,563 60
Female 200 34 18,673 40
Primary Occupation
Yes 324 56 23,847 50
No 257 44 24,314 50
TOTAL PRODUCERS 581 100 48,161 100

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source: Census of Agriculture: Table 45 Selected Operation and Producer Characteristics

Top Crops by Acre

The top crops were hay and haylage, winter wheat, barley, spring wheat, and safflower.

Tops Crops by Acre-Big Horn

 Source: Census of Agriculture: Table 1: County Summary Highlights: 2017

Top Livestock

The top livestock were cattle, hogs, sheep, and poultry (chickens-layers and turkeys).

Livestock
Number of Head
Cattle 83,734
Sheep 424
Chickens-Layers 395
Hogs 33
Turkeys 21

 

 

 

 

 

 
Source: Census of Agriculture: Tables 11 (Cattle), 13 (Sheep) and 19 (Poultry) 

Employment Impact

Agricultural production employed 900 workers, or 16% of the county’s labor force.  According to IMPLAN, economic impact model, 767 of the workers were directly employed in production agriculture.  An additional 108 workers were employed in businesses supporting agricultural production, such as feed and fertilizer dealers, and another 25 workers were employed in other related businesses, such as grocery and drugs stores. For every 10 jobs on farms and ranches, 2 additional jobs are generated in the county.

 

Impact Type
Labor Force
Impact Multipliers
County Labor Force 5,512  
Direct Impact 767
Indirect Impact 108 0.14
Induced Impact 25 0.03
Total Impact 900 0.17
Agriculture Share (%) 16  

 

 

 

 

 

 


Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, www.bls.gov/#cntyaa and IMPLAN Estimates

Value Added Impacts


Farms and ranches generated $37.5 million of value-added, or 4% of the county’s total gross domestic product of $935 million in 2017.  According to IMPLAN, $30.1 million was directly contributed by farmers and ranchers.  An additional $5.7 million was generated by businesses supporting agricultural production and $1.7 million was generated by other related businesses.  Each dollar of value-added in agriculture by a farmer or rancher contributes an additional $0.25 of value-added in other sectors of the county’s economy.

 

Impact Type
Value - Added
($1 million)
Impact Multipliers
County GDP* 935.0  
Direct Impact** 30.1
Indirect Impact** 5.7 0.19
Induced Impact** 1.7 0.06
Total Impact** 37.5 0.25
Agriculture Share (%) 4  











Sources:  * St. Louis Federal Reserve Bank, ** IMPLAN Estimates

References


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